Biological Control Processes

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The discipline "Methods in Biological Control ", is a specific area of Biology, was planned to students of the 1nd cycle of the Biology course, being a subject of the division of Biotechnology (3rd year). Its content consists of matter of multidisciplinary nature, complementary to other specific areas of Biology, namely: Applied Ecology, Entomology, Microbiology and Protection of Agricultural Production, being the learning objectives of the study and practice of Biological Control. In this context the Biological Control is understood as a natural phenomenon by which plants and animals populations are regulated by their natural enemies. It is a standing concept, 1890, that refers to all modifications of the environment, in accordance with the rules of ecological stability and balance, and even admits harmful organisms below the economic level of attack.


Biological Control International interest

Problems at the levels: technical, economic and environmental.

Control and balance of nature.

The agriculture and control of diseases, invasive plants and agricultural pests.

Their natural enemies: entomophagous; predators; Pathogens.

Natural host or replacement. The artificial culture media.

Methodology of Biological Control.

Biological Control of pests of agricultural interest, medical and veterinary.

The Vertebrates and Biological Control.

Special biological control methods.

Cultural practices: direct and indirect.

Genetic methods: pest resistant plants.

Physiological Control: Hormones; Anti-Hormones; Anti-chitin; Pheromones; Sterility substances; Feeding inhibitors; GMOs.

Teaching Methodologies

The course program will use the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), using tools such as a computer and a video projector. Intend to use the solutions developed in the areas of Education Sciences and Vocational Training enhanced with multimedia resources, to strengthen motivation and knowledge of the theoretical and practical concepts.

Classes and the course “dossier” are available in the Moodle platform; this platform also allows the contact between the students and the teacher. At the end of the course will be provided themes for individual study. Each theme will be developed in two (2) formats, monograph and oral presentation.


Amaro, P. & M. Baggiolini (1982). Introdução à Protecção Integrada. FAO.

Altieri, M.A. (2004). Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems. Food Products Press.

Bosch (van den) R., Messenger, P. & Gutierrez, A. (1982). An Introduction to Biological Control. Plenun Press.

Flint, M.L. & Dreistadt, S.H. (1998). Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control.

Univ. Calif. Div. Agric. Nat. Res. Publ. 3386. Oakland.

Huffaker, C. (1971). Biological Control. Plenum/Roseta.

Heyler, N., Cattlin, N. & Brown, K. (2014). Biological Control in Plant Protection. CRC Press.

Hoffmann, M.P. & Frodsham, A.C. (1993) Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 63 pp.

Pimentel, D. & Peshin, R. (2012). Integrated Pest Management – Pesticide Problems. Springer

Vincent C. & Coderre, D. (1992). La lutte biologique. Gaetan Morin Ed.

Repositório Científico da UAc:



ECTS Credits



  • Práticas e Laboratórios - 30 hours
  • Teórico-Práticas - 15 hours